CHRONOLOGY (OF CHRISTIANITY IN AFRICA)

by Metropolitan Makarios (Tillyrides) of Kenya

 

Year 331 BC - The Foundation of the Great City of Alexandria by Alexander the Great in the year 331 BC.

Year I - Birth of our Lord Jesus Christ in Bethlehem.

Year 33 - The Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension of our Lord.

Year 62 - The Martyrdom of St Mark in Alexandria.

Year 180 - Pantainos founded the Catechetical School in Alexandria.

Year 231 - A Synod was convened in Alexandria under the chairmanship of Bishop Demetrios where Origen was declared unworthy to teach.

Year 232 - A synod was convened in Alexandria by Bishop Demetrios during which Origen was defrocked.

Year 255 - A synod was convened in Arsinoe under the presidency of Bishop Dionysios the Great to condemn the false teachings of the followers of a certain Bishop Nephon.

Year 285 - The First church was built in Egypt by Saint Theonas of Alexandria.

Year 305 -306 - Patriarch Petros of Alexandria summoned the Bishops of the Church in Egypt to condemn the heretic Melitios.

Year 320 or 321 - A synod was held by Bishop Alexander together with one hundred Bishops to condemn Arius and his followers.

Year 320 - The Foundation of St Savva monastery in Alexandria.

Year 325 - The First Ecumenical Council in Nicaea; among those participating were: Bishop Alexander of Alexandria and Deacon Athanasios, later to become the Great Father of the Church and Bishop of Alexandria.

Year 330 - Ordination of the first Bishop in Ethiopia, Frumentios, by Athanasios the Great.

Year 338 or 339 - A synod was convened by Bishop Athanasios in which one hundred Bishops participated to welcome him on his return from exile and to send an encyclical letter to all.

Year 346 - 21st October. A synod was convened by Bishop Athanasios to examine the internal and external situation of the Church. At this synod the decisions which were taken by the synod of Sardina were confirmed.

Year 346 + - Pachomios establishes the coenobitic type of Monasticism.

Year 362 - A synod was convened by Bishop Athanasios during which the heresy of Apollinarios was condemned.

Year 363 - A synod was convened in Alexandria by Bishop Athanasios during which a memorandum was composed concerning the teaching of the Church on the Holy Trinity.

Year 365 - Death of Antonios the Great, who is considered to be the first monk and founder of Christian monasticism.

Year 369 -A synod was convened by Athanasios together with 90 other Bishops of the Church in Africa during which a Synodical letter was written against the Arians to all the Bishops in Africa.

Year 371 - A synod was convened by Athanasios in Alexandria with the participation of eighty Bishops during which a synodical letter was sent to Pope Damasos.

Year 430 - Bishop Cyril convened a synod with his co-Bishops during which letters were written to Nestorios.

Year 452 - The Bishop of Alexandria Proterios convened a synod in Alexandria in which he tried to bring together the Monophysites and the Orthodox Church.

Year 477 - A synod was convened in Alexandria by Bishop Timothy which approved all his actions and decisions.

Year 477 - Timothy, the Bishop Known as "Wild-Cat", convened a synod in Alexandria to condemn the fourth Ecumenical Council in Chalcedon; Timothy also exiled the Orthodox Bishops.

Year 482 - A synod was convened in Alexandria during which John Talaias was elected Bishop of Alexandria.

Year 530 - The Foundation of the Monastery of St George in old Cairo.

Year 533 - The Foundation of the Diocese of Selefkia in Central Africa, by Emperor Justinian.

Year 563 - The final schism between Greeks and Copts in Egypt. From then on there were two Patriarchs, the Orthodox and the Monophysite residing in Alexandria. (The Monophysite Patriarch later re-located to Cairo).

Year 569 - Final schism between Greeks and Copts.

Year 638 - A synod was convened in Alexandria to approve the 'Report' issued by Emperor Heraclios of Byzantium and composed by Patriarch Sergios.

Year 641 - The conquest of the great city of Alexandria by the Arabs.

Year 642 - The Arab conquest of all Egypt.

Year 863 - The Venetians steal the relics of St Mark.

Year 952 - The possible date of the foundation of the Library of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Alexandria.

Year 1098 - First mention is made of the existence in the Patriarchal Library of the Codex Alexandrinus.

Year 1163 - Patriarch Sophronios III of Alexandria was present during the coronation of Emperor Manuel Comnenos in Constantinople.

Year 1263 - The Ambassador of the Sultan of Egypt in Constantinople became Patriarch Nikolas II (1263-1276)

Year 1418 -The skull of St Mark was stolen by a Venetian pirate.

Year 1517 - The Turkish occupation of Egypt during which time the Patriarch was Joakim the Athenian. The capture of Syria, Palestine and Egypt by the Turks.

Year 1623 - The construction of the Patriarchal Church of St Nicholas in Cairo.

Year 1627 - Patriarch Cyril Lukaris presented the famous Codex Alexandrinus to King Charles I of England for "safe keeping".

Year 1647 - The first Orthodox Church is erected in Tunisia.

Year 1652 - The first Greek school and hospital were established in Old Cairo by Patriarch Joannikios.

Year 1715 - Metropolitan Arsenios of Thebaid arrived in England on behalf of Patriarch Samuel Kapasoulis and began negotiations with the Non-Juring Bishops.

Year 1750 - A missionary monk Stephanos, was sent by Patriarch Matthew to Ethiopia, to evangelize the people there.

Year 1798 - The French conquest of Egypt.

Year 1805 - Mohamed Ali becomes Pasha of Egypt.

Year 1833 - The opening of the first Greek Consulate in Alexandria with Michael Tositsa as consul.

Year 1843 - 25th April. The Foundation of the Greek Community in Alexandria.

Year 1847 -The Foundation stone is laid for the Church of Evangelismos in Alexandria (Nov. 16)

Year 1853 -The First Greek book was printed in Alexandria.

Year 1853 -First publication of a Greek book on the modem history of the Greeks in Egypt.

Year 1857 -The Consecration of the Church of Evangelismos by Patriarch Ierotheos.

Year 1859 -The date of the establishment of the "Egyptian Institute" of which Patriarch Callinicos was a founder member.

Year 1860 - The foundation of the Ampetios School in Cairo.

Year 1862 - The publication of the first newspaper in Egypt under the title "Egypt".

Year 1865 - The composition of the first constitution of the Patriarchate numbering twelve articles.

Year 1869 - The first Greek language bookshop in Alexandria was established under the name "Ho Phoenix".

Year 1873 - On the 7th of January the Cypriot Brotherhood was established in Alexandria.

Year 1874 - Patriarch Sophronios submitted to the Egyptian Government a new Constitution comprising four chapters and 32 articles but the Government rejected it.

Year 1882 -The naval bombardment of Alexandria by the British.

Year 1885 - A great benefactor of the Greek Community in Alexandria was George Averoff.

Year 1900 - The first edition of the year book of the Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Year 1901 - The re-establishment of the Archdiocese of Ptolemais.

Year 1904 - The foundation of the Greek Community in Cairo.

Year 1908 - The publication of the two official periodicals of the Patriarchate of Alexandria "Pantainos" and "Ecclesiastinos Pharos".

Year 1908 - The establishment of the Patriarchal Press in Alexandria.

Year 1917 - The elevation of King Fouad I to the throne of Egypt.

Year 1925 - Patriarch Meletios participated in the celebrations of the 1600 anniversary of the convocation of the first Ecumenical Synod (325-1925).

Year 1925 - The first Orthodox Africans were baptised by Nicodemos Sarikas, a Greek Archimandrite resident in Moshi Tanzania.

Year 1926 - The date of the formulation of the constitution or Rules of the Seminary of St Athanasios in Cairo.

Year 1927 - The date of the Patriarchal and Synodical Tomes approving the establishment of the Holy Archbishopric of Hermoupolis.

Year 1927 - The date of the Patriarchal and Synodical Tomes approving the establishment of the Holy Archbishopric of Johannesburg.

Year 1930 - The establishment of the Egyptian Orthodox Community.

Year 1930 - The Patriarch Meletios Metaxakis attended the seventh Lambeth Conference in England as an observer.

Year 1931 - Celebrations are held in Alexandria by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria on the occasion of the 1500th anniversary of the Council of Ephesus (431 -1931) (21 -22 November).

Year 1931 - The constitution of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate was formulated under the supervision of Patriarch Meletios Metaxakis.

Year 1931 - First celebration of the Liturgy of St James in Cairo.

Year 1931 - The date of the Patriarchal and Synodical Tomes approving the establishment of the Holy Archbishopric of Carthage.

Year 1933 - The opening of the new Patriarchal Palace in Cairo by Patriarch Meletios, built at the expense of Theodore Kotsikas.

Year 1936 - Death of King Fouad 1.

Year 1942 - Visit of Archbishop Nicholas Abdallah of Axum to East Africa as an envoy of the Patriarchate.

Year 1943 - 15th of November the first Constitution of the African Orthodox Church signed by Reuben Mukasa Spartas and Arthur Gathuma.

Year 1945 - Four Orthodox Ugandans were sent to Alexandria to study there.

Year 1946 - The first visit of M Spartas to Alexandria. The recognition of the constitution and acceptance of the name, the African Greek Orthodox Church, by the Holy Synod.

Year 1946 - Official recognition of the Orthodox Africans by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Year 1952 - The first edition of the "Analecta" is published by the Institute for Oriental Studies of the Library of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Year 1952 -1959 - Mau-Mau Movement in Kenya. The Orthodox Church was banished by the Colonial Government.

Year 1952 - Military coup in Egypt.

Year 1953 - Abolition of the monarchy and proclamation of Egypt as a Republic.

Year 1953 - The African Greek Orthodox Church was officially recognised in Uganda.

Year 1956 - Official recognition of the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya on the 13th of December 1956.

Year 1956 - Election of the President of the Republic of Egypt Gamal Abdul Nasser.

Year 1958 - The proclamation of the United Arab Republic.

Year 1958 - By Patriarchal and Synodical decree three new Archbishoprics were established in Africa, ie Central Africa, East Africa and West Africa.

Year 1958 -The foundation of the Council of Churches in Alexandria. (18th April).

Year 1961 - The consecration of the first Orthodox Church in Uganda by the Archbishop of East Africa, Nicholas, on the 12th March 1961.

Year 1963 - The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria honours (5 April) the 1900th anniversary of the Martyrdom of the Evangelist and Founder of the Church in Africa, Mark.

Year 1963 -The foundation of the first Orthodox parish by an African in Tanzania. (4/28/1963).

Year 1963 - On the Sunday of Orthodoxy March 3rd 1963 an assembly of priests and laypeople from Kenya and Uganda was held in Kampala; they reaffirmed their full support and attachment to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Year 1966 - The Orthodox youth Movement was founded in Kenya (Waithaka) on the 6th August 1966. Year 1968 - The establishment of two new Archbishoprics of the Patriarchate, that of Rhodesia and of Cape Town.

Year 1968 - Representatives from the Vatican pay a visit to Patriarch Nicholas and give him part of the relics of St Mark from Venice on behalf of Pope Paul VI.

Year 1970 - The death of the President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser (28 September).

Year 1970 - The first Edition of Abba Salama's Helleno-Ethiopian Studies under the Directorship of Methodios of Axum was published.

Year 1971 - The inauguration of the new Patriarchal Palace of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate at St Savva Monastery (21 November).

Year 1997 - The Establishment by Synodical decree of new Dioceses of the Patriarchate, ie those of Bukoba, Madagascar, Ghana and Nigeria. (23 September).

Year 1998 - On the 29th March 1998 Fr Chariton Pneuatikakis, died in Kananga, having served the Orthodox mission there for 25 years.

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