LITURGICAL ORDER #1 (PRELIMINARY)
by Bishop Tikhon (Fitzgerald) of San Francisco and the West
FEAST OF THE ALL-HOLY LIFE-CREATING AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY.+
To the dearly beloved and very reverend clergy of the cathedrals of the Diocese of the West:
Holy Trinity Cathedral, San Francisco, California
St. Spiridon Cathedral, Seattle, Washington
Holy Virgin Mary (Rescuer of the Perishing) Cathedral, Los Angeles, California
Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, Denver, Colorado
In the first days of my episcopate, I indicated my intention of providing a liturgical order for our diocesan cathedrals. Such is in progress, but it is a larger undertaking than I had foreseen. Meanwhile, there are a few directions, which will, of cours e, be found in the projected order, but which can be effected now. These directions are:
to no longer omit Psalm 33, "I will bless the Lord at all times …" from its place at the Divine Liturgies of St. John Chrysostom, of St. Basil the Great, of the Presanctified Gifts, and at the All-Night Vigil (but not at Great Vespers served alone; to restore the stanzas on the Beatitudes (i.e., the so-called "Blesseds"); to use certain Service Books; to cause the singing of certain portions of the services by the entire church; and for the Priest to read aloud certain prayers heretofore prescribed to be read in secret. I will also iterate some other instructions, which should not represent changes, but reminders of what is expected.
II. Psalm 33: I will bless the Lord at all times...
This psalm had dropped out of usage almost everywhere in nineteenth-century Russian liturgical practice. That omission, along with the omission of the "Blesseds," the omission of verses on "Alleluia" at Divine Liturgy, omission of the fourth repetition of "God is the Lord" (as well as the verses thereon) at Matins, were, no doubt, some of the omissions to which many of the Russian bishops referred at the end of the last century, when they referred to unwise or ill-considered omissions in their recommendati ons to the All-Russian Church Council and to the necessity of a revised or "parish" Typikon. (These omissions were not observed everywhere, as the "Desk-Manual for Sacred Church Servers" of S. V. Bulgakov, Kharkov, 1900, witnesses in its outlines for serving, and rubrical instructions. They were, by and large, restored to usage in the Russian Church (both outside and inside the Soviet Union) by the end of World War II.)
The place for Psalm 33 at Divine Liturgy is indicated in the 1984 printing of the Divine Liturgy (St. Tikhon's Seminary Press): Vol. I, Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, pp. 97-98, and Vol. II, Liturgy of St. Basil the Great and of Presanctified Gifts, 103 -104, and p. 160, respectively. It is also indicated in the Priest's Service Book, Part II: pp. 293, 352, & 391.
The place for Psalm 33 (first eleven (11) verses only, i.e., through "… shall lack nothing.") at All-Night Vigil is indicated on p. 24 of the Priest's Service Book, Part I.
The music for the chanting of Psalm 33, if not available in a given cathedral's music library, may be obtained from Rev. Hierodeacon Vincent, the Los Angeles Cathedral Deacon. The version provided by Father Deacon is the chant to be used when I serve.
When a deacon is serving Divine Liturgy, the chanting of this psalm is the time for him to consume the Holy Gifts; hence, the priest will continue to read the Prayer at the Consumption of the Holy Gifts and will bless the deacon to consume the gifts immediately after "Blessed be the Name of the Lord, henceforth and forevermore."
Former practice dictated that the blessed antidoron was distributed during the chanting of Psalm 33. I leave it up to the senior priest at each Cathedral to decide whether this will be wise pastorally. In any case, having received the antidoron and having venerated the Precious Cross, the devout parishioner remains in the temple to read the prayers of Thanksgiving after Partaking of the Mysteries (while the parishioner who has not partaken remains also in church, repenting): all must stay at least until the dismissal, as usual. When I am serving, then I will be unvested and don the Mantiya during the Psalm.
At the All-Night Vigil Psalm 33 (only the first eleven (11) verses) is chanted after "Blessed be the Name of the Lord, henceforth and forevermore". The senior of the priests, goes to stand before the Holy Doors during the chanting of the Psalm, and bles ses the People ("The Blessing of the Lord be upon you...") at the conclusion.
III. The Blesseds.
The Blesseds, or stanzas on the Beatitudes, are of two sorts. There are the specially composed verses in all eight tones found in the Resurrection Oktoechos, and there are Blesseds which are simply troparia of a canon or canons pro per to a festal season, or a saint's commemoration. Directions, or specifications, for the singing of Blesseds on any given occasion are to be found in the Menaion and in the Typikon. For example, in the rubrics for September 1st, the Typikon reads as follows: "At Liturgy, Blesseds from the Canon of the Indiction, third ode on four: and of the Venerable (saint), ode six on four." That means that, counting back from "Both now and ever and unto ages of ages. Amen", the troparia of the indicated odes o f the indicated canons must be inserted until eight troparia have been inserted. Thus, the Beatitudes would be sung one after the other through "Blessed are the merciful …" After this Beatitude the first troparion from the third ode of the Canon of the Indiction (new year) would be inserted, and so on. The Typikon continues for this same day, "If the first day of the month of September falls on the Lord's Day …: At Liturgy, Blesseds of the Resurrectional tone, on four: And from the Canon of the Indi ction on four: And of the Saint, ode six on four." That means that we must start inserting stanzas from the Sunday tone right after "Blessed are the poor in spirit …" and we will end with the fourth troparion from the sixth ode of the Canon of Saint Sime on Stylites after "Both now and ever …" On Sundays there will be occasions when no Blesseds from a Saint, from a Forefeast, Feast, or Afterfeast are prescribed. Then only the Beatitudes from the Oktoechos, i.e., of the Tone, will be used.
This should lead to a clear understanding of when the Typical Antiphons (Bless the Lord, O my soul; Praise the Lord, O my soul; and In the Kingdom, remember us, O Lord) are to be sung and when they may be omitted, replaced by the Daily Antiphons with the ir refrains. When the Typikon prescribes Blesseds from a Canon, the Typical Antiphons must be sung; conversely, if on a given (week)day no Blesseds are prescribed, for example, when it's the day of a Saint for whom no Canon was written at all, then the Daily Antiphons may be sung. Since there are Blesseds for every Sunday in every tone, then it would never be appropriate to sing anything but the Beatitudes, or, more correctly, the Typical Antiphons, on a Sunday, except in one case: when a Great Feast of our Lord occurs on Sunday. Then, of course, the Festal Antiphons must be sung. Blesseds, with the Typical Antiphons, would be sung on the days of the Forefeast and Afterfeast, when the Festal Antiphons not prescribed.)
Remarks about music for the Blesseds. There are three possible ways for the Blesseds to be chanted: in the prescribed tone, in a standard chant, and by the reader (psalmist or chorister) chanting alone.
It would be a quite complicated undertaking for the choir master and the choir to essay following the first possibility, singing the Blesseds in the prescribed (respective) tone(s): this is more achievable in monastic practice. The second possibility, sin ging the Blesseds in a standard chant, is to be preferred. If the choir master does not have in his church music library a standard setting for Blesseds, he may obtain a good one from the choir master at the San Francisco Cathedral, where it is already be ing used, or from Hierodeacon Vincent. The Beatitudes themselves must, of course, be sung to one of the straightforward, simple chants. (Here it may be said to anyone who fears that the restoration of the Blesseds is going to prolong the Liturgy uncons cionably, that it is possible to sing the Beatitudes and the Blesseds in less time than some choirs are now using to sing the Beatitudes alone, by exercising common sense in selecting the music.) The third possibility, a solo chanter chanting the Blesse ds, while the choir sings the Beatitudes, would certainly be appropriate in a very small parish or a mission, but not appropriate to any of our cathedrals with their relatively vast personnel and talent resources.
IV. Service books to be used by the Sacred Servers (clergy) are:
For Liturgy, either the 1984 edition of the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, of the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil the Great, and of the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, published at St . Tikhon's Seminary Press; or the Priest's Service Book, Vol. II (popularly known as "Bishop Dmitri's"). For the All-Night Vigil, the Priest's Service Book, Vol. I, is to be used.
V. [The Our Father and I Believe]
The Our Father and the I Believe are to be sung by the congregation, led by the choir, according to the plain chant. Under no circumstances are the Our Father or the I Believe to be read in a plain voice (i. e., not sung or intoned) by anyone at all time during a service, not during the Divine Liturgy, not during the Vigil, and not during the Hours. If the practice of reciting the Trisagion prayers through the Our Father has crept into any of our cathedrals, it's to be stopped. It follows here, as in the case of Beatitudes, that the choir master may now retire elaborate compositions of the Our Father and the I Believe from the church music library, though they may, of course, have a place in a church music concert.
VI. These prayers are to be read aloud:
All prayers at the bowing of heads at Liturgy and the Office, and all these prayers at the Anaphora: It is meet and right to hymn Thee; With these blessed power, O Master; Remembering this saving commandment; Again we offer unto Thee; For the holy Prophet; and Remember, O Lord, the city.
VII. Doors and the curtain.
Chapter 23 of the Typikon reads as follows:
About the Holy Altar, When it is Opened and When it is Closed
The curtain is opened at the beginning of Vespers, and stays open even until the Dismissal. At Matins likewise, from the beginning until the end. At the Hours, when they are read outside of Liturgy, it is opened for the reading of the Apostle, and stays open until the dismissal. But at the dismissal it is closed indeed. At the beginning of Liturgy the curtain is opened and stays opened until (through) the Great Entrance. After the Entrance it is closed again, until the priest, or deacon, cries, "The doors, the doors, in Wisdom let us attend!" It is opened then and remains open until the exclamation, "Holy Things are for the Holy!". And again it is closed. After Communion it is opened again, and it stays open until the end of the Holy Liturgy. After the Dismissal of the Liturgy, it is again completely closed. But if a Molieben is sung, then it remains open from beginning to end of that. NOTE: Be aware that the Holy Doors are never opened, except at the beginning of Great Vespers when there is a Vigil, when the priest censes, and for all entrances , i.e., of Vespers and Liturgy, and with the Holy Gospel: likewise, they are opened for the appearance of the Holy Gifts, even until the completion of the Divine Liturgy.
The Holy Doors (and the north and south doors, as well) are of course still to remain opened through the entire Bright Week, until the Ninth Hour on Bright Saturday evening, i.e., during the entire period when, according to ancient practice, those newly illuminated through Holy Baptism remained in the Temple wearing their Baptismal garments.
VIII. [The Duties of those in Minor Orders]
Tonsured Readers and Ordained Subdeacons, when serving or reading, should wear the vestments appropriate to their function. The garment of a Reader is the Sticharion; that of the Subdeacon is the Sticharion and Orarion worn crossed about the torso . The cassock (podriassnik, anderi, or undercassock) is not the garment or sign of a Reader or Subdeacon, but is a garment which is appropriately worn under the sticharion.
Tonsured Readers may make ready the vestments in the Altar for the Sacred Servers and Church Servers before a service. They may prepare the censer, and carry lights, or fans, during processions and entrances, hold the holy water vessel and brush, hold the vessel with blessed oil or the dish with the blessed bread at Vigil, and they may cut up and otherwise prepare that blessed bread. They may themselves light the lights and lamps when prescribed by the ritual. They may prepare the vessels which contain w ine and water and fill them before the Divine Liturgy, and they may operate the altar curtain according to the prescribe ritual. They may prepare the warm water and bear it to the Deacon or Priest during the Divine Liturgy. They may bear the episcopal st aff, ascend the ambo to sing the trio at the Trisagion of the Divine Liturgy, bear and page the Bishop's Service Book, may secure the train of the Bishop's mantle, and may distribute the hierarchical Eagle-rugs. These privileges are all in addition to the ir assigned responsibility of reading in Church (not only in Church but from the Ambo, or on the raised "Vesting Place").
Ordained Subdeacons may do all those things permitted to Readers. In addition, they may touch the Holy Altar Table, when there is a necessity or direction to do so. For example, a Subdeacon may remove the large cloth which covers the Holy Table and everything on it between services. He may prepare the Table of Oblation for Divine Liturgy. A Subdeacon may remove the Dikirion and/or Trikirion from the Holy Table, if these have been placed there (i.e., when there is no special stand for them behind the Holy Table). Subdeacons may open the Holy Doors, as at the beginning of the Divine Liturgy, when a hierarch is serving. Subdeacons vest a hierarch in his holy vestments when there are not enough deacons to do so.
Untonsured Readers, both men and women, are a regular part of our Church life, and will continue to be so. Where there are many Readers, then they should read according to a (fair) schedule made up by the Senior Priest of the Cathedral or the person he appoints to do so. There is certainly no reason to exclude women from reading when I am serving, especially since some of the finest reading I have ever heard has been by women; for example, Mrs. Olga Raevsky-Hughes, Matushka Emilie Lisenko, Matushka Ma rgaret Gisetti, and others. Few men read this well — soberly, correctly, distinctly, according to the established patterns, devoutly, not self-consciously, and in tune.
IX. There is a qualitative standard for the execution of all the sacred privileges described above: perfection.